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Shalilian, Mahsa (2011) Scelta maschile per gruppi di femmine di numerositĂ  differente in Poecilia Reticulata. [Magistrali biennali]

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Abstract

Nell’ambito della selezione sessuale maggiore attenzione è stata tradizionalmente rivolta alla scelta sessuale femminile, mentre lo studio dei meccanismi, in particolare quelli cognitivi, che guidano la scelta sessuale maschile sono stati presi in considerazione solo recentemente. L’assunzione che la scelta maschile sia sempre casuale ed indiscriminata è infatti probabilmente sbagliata ed è probabile che anche i maschi adottino delle strategie di valutazione del partner che permettano loro di compiere scelte rapide ed ottimali. Anche per i maschi la ricerca di un partner con cui accoppiarsi rappresenta, cosi come per le femmine, un costo in termini di tempo ed energie che va a discapito di altre attività quali la ricerca del cibo o l'evitamento dei predatori. Per esempio, nella specie utilizzata come modello sperimentale in questo studio, Poecilia reticulata, i maschi scelgono le femmine in base a familiarità, rischio associato alla predazione, e condizioni ambientali, ma soprattutto in base alla grandezza delle dimensioni corporee, in quanto esse sono correlate con la loro fecondità. Tuttavia, ci si può aspettare che laddove le femmine vivono in gruppi di diversa numerosità, i maschi tendano a preferire i gruppi più numerosi. In questo contesto, il presente studio costituisce un primo tentativo di individuare quali siano i limiti cognitivi che i maschi di P. reticulata utilizzano nella scelta tra gruppi di femmine più o meno numerosi. Sono stati quindi condotti cinque esperimenti di scelta spontanea in cui ai soggetti sperimentali (maschi adulti di P. reticulata), veniva data la possibilità di scegliere tra due gruppi di femmine di diversa numerosità (negli Esperimenti 1; 3; 4; 5 è stato utilizzato il confronto 3 femmine vs 1 femmina; nell’Esperimento 2 invece il confronto 4 femmine vs 2 femmine) ed un esperimento di interazione diretta (Esperimento 6) in cui ai soggetti è stata data la possibilità di interagire direttamente con 3 o con 1 femmina in due test successivi. I risultati ottenuti hanno dimostrato che i maschi di P.reticulata non scelgono preferenzialmente il gruppo più numeroso in nessuna delle condizioni sperimentali adottate. L’esperimento di interazione diretta (Esperimento 6) ha dimostrato che le opportunità di accoppiamento non variano significativamente nell'ambito delle differenze numeriche considerate. Tale risultato inatteso dipende probabilmente dalla difficoltà per il maschio corteggiare efficacemente più femmine contemporaneamente e di utilizzare, quando queste non sono recettive, la tattica di copula forzata.

Tipologia del documento:Magistrali biennali
Parole chiave:Sexsual selection, Poecilia Reticulato, Male mate choice
Settori scientifico-disciplinari del MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/05 Zoologia
Codice ID:39233
Relatore:Pilastro, Andrea
Data della tesi:2011
Biblioteca:Polo di Scienze > CIS "A. Vallisneri" - Biblioteca Biologico Medica
Tipo di fruizione per il documento:on-line per i full-text
Tesi sperimentale (Si) o compilativa (No)?:Sì

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