Criscenti, Giuseppe (2012) La configurazione del monoteismo. [Laurea specialistica biennale]
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What is monotheism? Are there any evidences that only one God exists? These questions can't be answered in historical terms. The term "monotheism" (from the Greek words "μόνος "=only, and "θεός" = God) does not admit the existence of God,but it connotes a religious attitude of human groups that have their own worship one deity identified with the term "God". God is not meant in the sense of objective reality, but in the ontological sense of reality that is taken both psychologically and culturally by human groups. Often mistaken with a generic theism and confused with the henotheism, or monolatry, monotheism is not untied from polytheism -attested since ancient times - but assumes a polytheism rejected and condemned. Monotheistic religions - the Mazdeism (or Zoroastrianism), Judaism, Christianity and Islam - although you actually able to the same concept of divine unity, and have close similarities and links of interdependence, are profoundly different between systems that have developed different monotheism. Monotheism appears in history in religious reform attempts, as in ancient Egypt under Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (14th century BC), and unification tendencies in antiquity, with many contradictions, as in the case of the so-called «Pagan monotheism». The essay analyses the processes of formation of concept of monotheism, caught in its extensive anthropological and theological dimension, studies on monotheism by Raffaele Pettazzoni, the debate on the Urmonotheismus (= primordial monotheism) to father Schmidt, the "distinction of Moses" by Jan Assmann.
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