Foletto, Giulio (2017) Direct Reconstruction of the Quantum Density Operator via Measurements of Arbitrary Strength. [Magistrali biennali]
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One of the fundamental problems of experimental quantum physics is the determination of the state of a system, which provides its accurate description and contains all the available information about it. The standard solution is quantum state tomography, a technique that employs a large number of measurements of complementary observables to reconstruct a general density operator. Recently, new protocols have been proposed which allow to obtain the matrix elements one by one with fewer and less complicated observations by exploiting so-called weak measurements, that perturb the system less than ideal projections at the cost of being less precise. This thesis presents an evolution of these schemes that eschews the weakness of the measurement, thus gaining in the accuracy of the results and in practical feasibility. We realized an experiment that uses these methods to reconstruct the density operator of the polarization state of light in single photons regime.
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