Tononi, Andrea (2018) Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity in 3D and 2D bosons. [Magistrali biennali]
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The refinement and the combination of laser cooling and evaporative cooling in dilute systems of alkali atoms lead to the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in 1995. Nowadays there is a fruitful interplay between theoretical and experimental results: in this context, the study of uniform Bose gases plays an important role in the comprehension of the static and dynamic properties of a bosonic system. Here we use quantum field theory, within the approach of functional integration, to study an homogeneous system of weakly-interacting bosonic cold atoms. After characterizing their thermodynamical properties, we derive - at a gaussian level - the number density and the superfluid density in three and in two spatial dimensions, expressed as functions of the condensate density and the temperature. Since the equations derived are valid for a generic interaction potential, we implement these formulas for bosons with a zero-range interaction, providing also an extension of these results with the inclusion of a finite-range interaction.
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